Evidence Based Research and Clinical Effectiveness

The Research & Development aspect of the NMT institute is based upon the creation of clinicial experiences and controlled treatment trials leading to research projects that eventually modify how we treat our patients. A good idea is not enough – it has to be substantiated using correct and precise treatment methodology. The role of the NMT Institute is to create correct and duplicable training which is the basis to all continuing education and primary objective to all training in medicine. Our role is to ensure that the Know-How created over the last 20 years becomes solid and reproducible medical intellegence.

The EB selection of clinical papers is an international open access to all areas in medicine and rehabilitation that underline possible advances in basic and advanced clinical medical research. Our objective is to create a platform for sharing correct NMT treatment methodology and result reciprocity which is the basis to all “good quality” evidence based research and clinical trials.

This ongoing NeuroMuscular Taping EB selection newsletter will present research articles, reviews, short communications, patient testimonials and case reports which have been published and available from independent sources. Authors and trained NMT specialists are encouraged to publish their personal experience. Only through your personal effort to share your consolidated and sometimes experimental results you are able to positively influence “how we treat our patients” and to increase our understanding of fundamental principles in the treatment and rehabilitation progression.

Help us share your professional  KNOW-HOW to others.                     Regards, David Blow

Its important to completely understand the taping method used

At times, there is a misconception that Kinesiology taping, Kinesio taping, and NeuroMuscular taping are synonymous, reflecting a limited grasp of the underlying methods and techniques. However, what sets these various taping approaches apart?

The NeuroMuscular Taping technique introduces a distinctive concept centered around decompression and dilation methodology, distinguishing it from other forms of kinesiology taping and bandaging. Originating in Italy in 2003, and created by David Blow, this novel taping approach, known as NMT, enhances the process of clinical reasoning. Its foundation lies in specific decompression taping applications, which form the core of this innovative rehabilitation method. Precise application of this technique proves effective in alleviating pain, addressing sports-related injuries, reducing muscle tension, and concurrently enhancing athletic performance, rehabilitation, as well as outcomes in physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech therapy.

Diabetic foot ulcer treatment management with lymphatic neuromuscular taping (NMT)

15 March 2021

H. Kristianto1,2, C. Celletti3, A. Waluyo2, F. Camerota3, D. Blow4

  1. Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia;
  2. Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia;
  3. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Division, Umberto I University Hospital of Rome;
  4. NeuroMuscular Taping Institute, Rome, Italy

Clin Ter 2021; 172 (2):8790. doi: 10.7417/CT.2021.2289


Introduction. Foot ulcers are major complications of diabetes mellitus and are estimated to affect 0.5–3% of the global population of people with diabetes. Treatment, prevention and management of foot ulcers is of paramount importance and utilisation of different preventative strategies has been described in literature. The aim of this research study is to evaluate the possible integrative role of NeuroMuscolar Taping (NMT) in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers.

Methods. This is an observational study involving patients with 3 to 5 degree of diabetic wound classification. The Bates-Jensen Wound Assessment Tool (BJWAT) was used before and after four weeks of NeuroMuscolar Taping applications.

Results. The BJWAT score significantly decreased after treatment with NMT application (p<0,05) evaluated with Friedman test.

Conclusion. NMT application seems to be a useful, non invasive and low cost treatment to associate with other treatments in the management of diabetic foot ulcers.

Key words: Diabetic foot, wound healing, diabetic ulcer, peripheral oxygenation, NeuroMuscular Taping

Neuromuscular taping application opportunities in nursing: a literature review

Heri Kristianto1,2, Agung Waluyo2, Em Yunir3, Dewi Gayatri2, David Blow4

  1. Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, School of Nursing, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia
  2. Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia
  3. Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia
  4. NeuroMuscular Taping Institute, Roma, Italy

Cent Eur J Nurs Midw 2020, 11(3):143-151 | DOI: 10.15452/cejnm.2020.11.0018


Aim: This study aims to identify nursing problems that can be assisted or resolved with neuromuscular taping, and to identify the characteristics of neuromuscular taping interventions in the field of nursing.

Design: A narrative literature review.

Methods: A journal search was conducted using the keywords “neuromuscular taping” to collect relevant articles published within the last five years from databases. The inclusion criteria were: randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental or case reports, participants aged over 17 years, full text articles, studies focusing on nursing problems, and written in English. Twelve journal articles were selected and analyzed using PICO, PEDro scale, ROBINS-I tool, and Pierson score, with a domain/class approach, and list of nursing diagnoses.

Results: The results of the literature review indicated that most studies were conducted in Europe with adults and seniors as participants. There were eight randomized controlled trials reports with PEDro scores in a range of 8–9; one quasi-experimental study with ROBINS-I scale in a range of 2; and three case reports with Pierson scores in a range of 9–10 for two articles, and 6–8 for another. All articles provided results which could help with nursing problems.

Conclusion: Neuromuscular taping can be applied for acute pain, chronic pain, impaired physical mobility, impaired walking, fatigue, and risk for unstable blood pressure.

Keywords: eccentric, fatigue, mobility, nursing, pain, neuromuscular taping, unstable blood pressure, walking

NEUROMUSCULAR TAPING (NMT) AND NEUROPLASTICITY: NMT Reduces Pain, Edema and Influences Proprioceptive Cognitive Strategies During Total Knee Arthroplasty Rehabilitation.

29th June 2020

Authors: Albizzati Erica1*, Trotti Claudio2, Forte Fabiana3 and Blow David4

  1. Physical Therapy coordinator, Quadrante (COQ) Orthopedic Center, Omegna, Italy
  2. Health and Hospital Operations Director Quadrante, (COQ) Orthopedic Center, Omegna, Italy
  3. Functional Rehabilitation Unit Coordinator, Quadrante (COQ) Orthopedic Center, Omegna, Italy
  4. NeuroMuscular Taping Institute, Rome, Italy

*Corresponding Author: Albizzati Erica, Physical Therapy Coordinator, Quadrante (COQ) Orthopedic Center, Omegna, Italy.

DOI: 110.5281/zenodo.3934948

page1image3812288    Research Article Journal of Medical Research and Case Reports. Volume 2 • Issue 3 • 2020 


ABSTRACT: The objective of this study is to propose new integrative strategies to enhance fast-track recovery after TKA surgery. Twenty patients underwent total knee replacement arthroplasty surgery (TKA) were randomly grouped into an experimental rehabilitation group us- ing physical therapy and application of a standardized decompression NeuroMuscular Taping (NMT) protocol on the operated knee (n° patients: 11) and a control group using physical therapy and an application of a standardized compression sham taping applica- tion on the operated knee (n° patients: 9). Each patient was asked to perform active mobilization on the operated knee in a sitting position of (3 sets of 5 repetitions) while wearing a BCI MindWave device (NeuroSky®). The aim of the study was to assess whether the NMT application induces changes in frontal cortex neuronal activity, where cognitive and attentional processes are elaborated. In addition to assess the efficacy of NMT for treating edema and pain secondary to a total knee replacement surgery; patient evaluation items included: lower limb size, range of motion (ROM) and pain (Numerical Rating Scale NRS).

Results: Over the treatment period we observed that the experimental group had a statistically significant reduction of edema (p<0,01), statistically significant reduction of pain (p<0,01) than the control group. Conversely, there were no significant differences between the groups regarding ROM. We recorded a statistically significant improvement in cognitive performance and activation of frontal cortex in patients who carried out attentional feedback exercises with decompressive NMT on their operated knee (p<0.01). Evaluation of EEG wave amplitude showed a greater cognitive activation for the experimental group’s patients: total average ampli- tudes of alpha, beta and gamma waves were higher and statistically significant (p<0.05) in patients with decompressive NMT. While total average frequencies of alpha, beta and gamma waves did increase all together they did not show a significant variation across all three.

Conclusion: The objective of this study was to investigate treatment options for improving post surgical rehabilitation creating faster track protocols for an ever increasing joint prosthetic population. This study has underlined significantly improved reduction of edema and pain in a rehabilitation context and allowed us to hypothesize the effects generated by a decompressive tape application (NMT) upon circuits delegated to the cognitive-attentional processing of stimuli.

Keywords: Total knee arthroplasty TKA, Brain Computer Interface, NeuroMuscular Taping, postoperative rehabilitation, Physical therapy, Physiotherapy.

Levodopa end-of-dose dystonia successfully treated by NeuroMuscular Taping: A CASE report

February 2020


Teresa Catarci, Giamsci Rafiee, Fabio Viselli

  1. Azienda Sanitaria Locale Roma1, Rome, Italy. E-mail address: teresa.catarci@aslroma1.it
  2. TE.RI. centro di Riabilitazione, Rome, Italy
  3. Hospital S. Giovanni Battista ACISMOM, Rome, Italy


NeuroMuscular Taping reduces blood pressure in systemic arterial hypertension

Medical Hypotheses 123 (2019) 89


David Blow (a), Claudia Celletti (b), Carmine Berlingieri (c), Filippo Camerotta (a)

  • a) Founder NeuroMuscular Taping Institute, Italy
  • b) Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Umberto I Univeristy Hospital of Rome, Italy
  • c) Laboratorio Tecnologie Innovative e Neuroriabilitazione IRCCS Ospedale San Camillo, Venice, Italy


Received 12 December 2018; Accepted 6 January 2019. 0306-9877/ © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Abstract: We read with interest the article of Shah et al. [1] regarding the application of Neuromuscular taping to the back of patients suffering from systemic arterial hypertension and its possible effect in modifying blood pressure. However, we would like to clarify that if we talk about “neuromuscular taping” we are talking define a specific tape application technique that is very different from the techniques mentioned (read kinesio taping, medical taping and Vendje neuromuscular). In particular there are two distinct and opposing types of taping used in the therapeutic area. The first one is called kinesio taping, functional taping or medical taping [2] and they use a specific compression or stretched application methodology that may also be called neuromuscular bandage; this method implies a taping application with a % of tension that is variable between paper-off, 25, 50 and 100% and so forth. This technique has been created in the 1980–90′s and has been studied in many conditions[3]. In recent years a second technique called Neuromuscular Taping, originated in Italy in early 2000 [4], uses a different tape application methodology: a non-stretched tape applied over the skin in an extended position resulting in a decompressive taping definition. This taping technique is characterized by resulting skin wrinkling, skin folds or skin undulations. This method used for treatment has been applied in different conditions (cerebral palsy, joint hypermobility, systemic sclerosis) resulting in different papers that have been published [5–9]. It has been hypothesized that decompressive NMT improves blood circulation as noted in reduction of Raynaud phenomenon [9] and in modulation of post‐transcriptional gene regulation [10].

Neuromuscular taping reduces blood pressure in systemic arterial hypertension

Med Hypotheses. 2018 Jul;116:30-32. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2018.04.014. Epub 2018 Apr 17.

Shah M, Julu POO, Monro JA, Coutinho J, Ijeh C, Puri BK.

  • Breakspear Medical Group, Hemel Hempstead, Hertfordshire, UK; Queen Mary University of
  • London and the William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine, UK.
  • Breakspear Medical Group, Hemel Hempstead, Hertfordshire, UK.
  • School of Physiotherapy, Escola Superior de Saúde – Politécnico do Porto, Portugal.
  • Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, UK. Electronic address: basant.puri@imperial.ac.uk.

KEY WORDS: Autonomic nervous system; Hypertension; Neuromuscular taping

PMID: 29857904 DOI: 10.1016/j.mehy.2018.04.014


Abstract: Systemic arterial hypertension, a well-known cause of morbidity, is associated with dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system. Neuromuscular taping (also known as kinesio taping, medical taping and Vendje neuromuscular) allows movement and muscle activity to treat pain, muscle disorders and lymphoedema, in which its mode of action may involve muscular stimulation leading to increased local blood circulation or stimulating dermatological, muscular and fascial structures with a form of passive massage. We hypothesised that neuromuscular taping may reduce blood pressure in systemic arterial hypertension. This hypothesis was tested by carrying out the first pilot study of its kind to determine whether the non-invasive technique of neuromuscular taping can reduce blood pressure in patients suffering from systemic arterial hypertension. Neuromuscular taping was symmetrically applied to the back, between C1 and T2, of seven hypertensive patients for 5-7​days. Cardiovascular autonomic parameters were assessed at baseline and at the end of the study. Taping was associated with falls in mean arterial blood pressure (p​=​.001), mean systolic blood pressure (p​<​.01), mean diastolic pressure (p​<​.01) and cardiac vagal tone at rest (p​=​.063). The beneficial effects on blood pressure appeared to last for at least five days post-neuromuscular taping. There is an indication, given the reduction in cardiac vagal tone at rest, that the mechanism of action of this intervention involves modulation of the brainstem parasympathetic system during cardiovascular control. Further studies are indicated to replicate the present findings, further investigate the effects of taping on autonomic functioning, and establish the optimum time-period and taping positioning.



Annamaria Vallelunga, Carmine Berlingieri, Marco Ragusa, Michele Purrello, Maria Rosaria Stabile, Maria Consiglia Calabrese, Julio Cesar Morales-Medina, Beniamino Palmieri, Tommaso Iannitti

Department of Biomedical , Biotechnological and Traslational Sciences and Graduate School of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Parma , Parma , Italy.
1 Department of Medicine and Surgery, Centre for Neurodegenerative Diseases (CEMAND), University of Salerno, Salerno, Italy,
2 Fondazione “Ospedale San Camillo” IRCCS, Venice, Italy,
3 Department of BioMedical Sciences and BioTechnology, Section of Biology and Genetics G Sichel, BioMolecular, Genome and Complex Systems BioMedicine Unit (BMGS), University of Catania, Catania, Italy,
4 Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation. AOU S. Giovanni di Dio e Ruggi d’Aragona, University of Salerno, Salerno, Italy,
5 Centro de Investigación en Reproducción Animal, CINVESTAV, Tlaxcala, Mexico AP 62, CP, 90000,
6 Department of General Surgery and Surgical Specialties, Surgical Clinic, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia Medical School, Modena, Italy,
7 KWS BioTest, Marine View Office Park, Portishead, Somerset BS20 7AW, United Kingdom,
Tommaso Iannitti, Email: moc.liamg@ittinnai.osammot.

Clin Case Rep. 2017 Dec; 5(12): 2040–2043. Published online 2017 Nov 2. doi: [10.1002/ccr3.1100]

PMCID: PMC5715604. PMID: 29225852. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5715604/        READ MORE

This study shows that NeuroMuscular Taping improves gait, balance, pain and ability to walk and conduct daily activities in a multiple sclerosis patient. It is the first study to identify a panel of miRNAs modulated throughout rehabilitation using NeuroMuscular Taping in a multiple sclerosis patient.

Abstract: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disease with symptoms including pain, coordination impairment, and muscle weakness [1]. Rehabilitation can improve motor function and patients’ quality of life (QOL). Neuromuscular taping (NMT) is a new elastic tape which improves muscular function, pain, and postural alignment, increases lymphatic and vascular flow, and strengthens weakened muscles [2]. Furthermore, NMT increases leg muscle strength in patients affected by relapsing–remitting MS (RR-MS) versus sham device [2]. The concept of “rehabilomics” aims to study rehabilitation endophenotypes to discover the molecular substrates involved in rehabilitation, but no biomarker is available to determine rehabilitation efficacy. miRNAs are small noncoding RNAs responsible for post-transcriptional gene regulation [3] and key regulators in MS [4, 6, 7, 9]. In addition, they are modulated by exercise in healthy subjects [5, 8].
In this study, we determined NMT efficacy in a secondary-progressive MS (SP-MS) patient and investigated, for the first time, (1) whether circulating miRNAs are altered by NMT and (2) are predictors of successful rehabilitation therapy.
KEYWORDS: Balance, gait, miRNAs, multiple sclerosis, neuromuscular taping, pain, physiotherapy

Effect of neuromuscular taping on musculoskeletal disorders secondary to the use of aromatase inhibitors in breast cancer survivors: a pragmatic randomised clinical trial


Inmaculada Conejo,(1), Bella Pajares,(2), Emilio Alba,(2), and Antonio Ignacio Cuesta-Vargas (3,4)

1. Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Health Science, University of Málaga, Málaga, Spain
2. Department of Medical Oncology, Carlos Haya Regional University Hospital, IBIMA, Málaga, Spain
3. Department of Physiotherapy, IBIMA, University of Málaga, Málaga, Spain
4. School of Clinical Science, Faculty of Health, Queensland University of Technology, Kelvin Grove, Australia

Inmaculada Conejo, Email: moc.liamg@ojenocamni.

BMC Complement Altern Med. 2018; 18: 180. Published online 2018 Jun 11. doi: [10.1186/s12906-018-2236-3] PMCID: PMC599654. PMID: 29890985


Background: Aromatase inhibitors reduce breast cancer recurrence rates in postmenopausal women by about 30% compared with tamoxifen while treatments differ. Unfortunately, nearly half of women taking AIs report AI-associated arthralgia (AIA), leading to therapy abandon in on third of patients, which could lead to cancer recurrence. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Neuromuscular Taping (NMT) in the treatment of AIA in women who have been treated of BC.
Methods: This study included 40 BC survivors receiving endocrine therapy (either AIs or TMX) from Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Victoria (Málaga, Spain) suffered from AIA. Patients were randomized to one of the two groups that made this pilot study: A. Placebo intervention B. Real NMT. Clinical data were collected from medical history, grip strength, algometry measured, questionnaires and VAS scale. There have been three interventions prior to the completion of the study, 5 weeks later. The primary objective of this pilot study was to achieve an improvement of pain by 20% decrease of VAS.
Results: Significant differences in measures of VAS (p = 0.009), global health status/QoL (p = 0.005), fatigue (p = 0.01) and pain (p = 0.04) were observed post intervention with NMT.
Conclusions: An intervention by NMT to MSCM under treatment with AIs improves their subjective sensation of pain. In addition, this taping had an impact on variables related to the quality of life. This pilot study may be the basis for others to support the use of NMT for the treatment of AIAs, thereby improving their well-being and reducing the dropout rate.
Trial registration. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02406794. Registered on 2 April 2015 Retrospectively registered.
Keywords: Breast cancer, Hormonal therapy, Aromatase inhibitors, Estrogen deprivation, Myalgia, Arthralgia, Carpal tunnel syndrome, Visual analogue scale, Pressure pain threshold, Neuromuscular taping, Kinesio taping

Use of neuromuscular taping (NMT) in post-thoracotomy pain: case series

Author information: Selene Carlotta Montaldo, FT; Giovanna Rubino, FT, Carla Simonelli, FT

Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, presidio di Molinette, servizio di Riabilitazione Respiratoria, Fondazione “S.Maugeri” IRCCS, Istituto di Lumezzane (BS), UO Cardiologia Riabilitativa

Italian Journal of Physiotherapy and Respiratory Rehabilitation (year XIV number 3 September-December 2015)

Key Words: Neuromuscular taping, chronic pain, thoracotomy

Abstract: Post-operative pain is frequently the cause of functional limitations and suffering in the patient undergoing thoracic surgery. Drug therapy is the treatment of choice for the control of post-thoracotomy pain. However, the search for non-pharmacological strategies to minimize the perception of nociceptive or neuropathic pain and peripheral and / or central sensitization is still of great interest.

The series of cases describes the treatment by applying Neuromuscular Taping (NMT) on patients with thoracotomy and persistent pain for over a month after surgery. The pain trend was measured, measured by means of a Borg CR10 scale, and the amount of pain relieving drugs taken. 7 patients (5 males) who underwent thoracotomy for lung transplantation or lung cancer surgery were treated with TN. In six cases the pain was reduced during the TN application sessions, while in one case the pain did not change. The amount of analgesic drugs taken as needed decreased in six cases. The application of TN in patients who have persisted pain for over a month after thoracotomy therefore seems to be able to positively influence the progress of pain symptoms and reduce the intake of pain relieving drugs. Future randomized controlled trials are necessary to define the real efficacy on the pain and the possible mechanisms of action of TN.

European Hip Surgery Congress 2018 – abstract book

First Published September 20, 2018 Meeting Report Find in PubMed


Authors: Trotti, C.*1, Albizzati, E.1

1Centro Ortopedico di Quadrante (COQ), Omegna, Italy

Introduction/objectives: Italy accounts for approximately 100,000 total hip replacement surgery (THR), after France (130,000). Edema commonly accompanies this surgical procedures; specific treatments may decrease swelling and consequent restrictions on postoperative exercises, speeding recovery and reducing hospitalization costs, as recently suggested by Zeng et al. Edema management commonly includes expensive procedures in terms of time-cost resources and materials. Aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of the NMT in order to reduce the temporary post-surgical insufficiency of lymphatic system after THR.

Methods: Fifty patients (F=29, M=21, mean age= 66,27 +/- 9,8) underwent to a THR were randomly grouped into an experimental group (mobilization exercises and NMT treatment, n= 23) or a control group (mobilization exercises and declive limb posture, n= 27). All patients were treated one hour/day for two weeks and evaluated with validated scales (NRS, WOMAC, ROM, MRC) and using lower limb size measured on the third day after surgery, after one week of NMT application, and at discharge.

Results: Edema and pain reduction in the experimental group was better and faster than the control group (p< 0,01), while there were no significant differences regarding ROM, MRC and WOMAC.

Conclusion: In literature there is no unanimous evidence about the efficacy of NMT. In Kalron meta-analysis, a moderate level of evidence in support of a better pain management in patients treated with taping has reported, but no evidence about circumference reduction of limb has been collected. In our study, instead, NMT appeared to be effective on edema secondary to THA surgery; the protocol applied at the experimental group seems to be feasible, cheaper and exportable to other realities.

Neuromuscular taping versus sham therapy on muscular strength and motor performance in multiple sclerosis patients


Costantino C1, Pedrini MF2, Licari O2.

  1. Department of Biomedical , Biotechnological and Traslational Sciences and.
  2. Graduate School of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Parma , Parma , Italy.
Disabil Rehabil. 2016;38(3):277-81. doi: 10.3109/09638288.2015.1038365. Epub 2015 Apr 20.PMID: 25893397  DOI: 10.3109/09638288.2015.1038365 [Indexed for MEDLINE]
Purpose: Purpose of this study is to evaluate differences in leg muscles strength and motor performance between neuromuscular taping (NT) and sham tape groups.
Method: Relapsing-remitting (RR) multiple sclerosis (MS) patients were recruited and randomly assigned to NT or sham tape groups. All patients underwent the treatment 5 times at 5-d intervals. They were submitted to a 6-minute walk test and isokinetic test (peak torque) at the beginning (T0), at the end (T1) and 2 months after the end of the treatment (T2).
Results: Forty MS patients (38 F; 2 M; mean age 45.5 ± 6.5 years) were assigned to NT group (n = 20) and to sham tape group (n = 20). Delta Peak Torque T1-T0 and T2-T0 between two groups were statistically significant in quadriceps (p = 0.007; 0.000) and hamstrings (p = 0.011; 0.007). The difference between the two groups according to 6-minute walk test was not statistically significant but in NT group it was noticed an increasing trend about the distance run.
Conclusions: In this single-blind randomized controlled trial, NT seemed to increase strength in leg muscles, compared to a sham device, in RR MS patients. Further studies are needed to consider this therapy as a complement to classic physical therapy.
IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATION: Neuromuscular taping (NT) in multiple sclerosis: NT is well tolerated by multiple sclerosis patients and should be a complement to classic physical therapy. This technique normalizes muscular function, strengthens weakened muscles and assists the postural alignment.
KEYWORDS: Motor performance; multiple sclerosis; muscle strength; neuromuscular taping

Neuromuscular taping for the upper limb in Cerebral Palsy: A case study in a patient with hemiplegia


Filippo Camerota1, Manuela Galli2,3, Veronica Cimolin2, Claudia Celletti1, Andrea Ancillao3, David Blow4, & Giorgio Albertini3

  1. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Division, Orthopaedic Department, Umberto I Hospital, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy,
  2. Department of Electronics, Information and Bioengineering, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy,
  3. IRCCS ‘‘San Raffaele Pisana’’, Tosinvest Sanita`, Roma, Italy,
  4. NeuroMuscular Taping Institute, Roma, Italy

Dev Neurorehabil, 2014; 17(6): 384–387

PMID: 24087981 DOI: 10.3109/17518423.2013.830152

Keywords: Cerebral palsy, kinematics, neuromuscular taping, reaching, rehabilitation, upper limb



Objective: To assess quantitatively the effects of Neuromuscular Taping (NMT) on the upper limb in a female child with left hemiplegia, due to Cerebral Palsy (CP).

Methods: The patient underwent NMT on cervical level, shoulder and hand only of the plegic upper limb, followed by physical therapy. Kinematic data of upper limbs during reaching task were collected before (PRE) and after 2 weeks of treatment (POST).

Results: After the intervention, the affected limb improved in terms of movement duration, Average Jerk and Number of Unit Movements indices, indicating a faster, smoother and less segmented movement. Improvements appeared at the ranges of motion of the upper limb joints, both at shoulder and elbow joints. No significant changes were globally displayed for the unaffected arm.

Conclusion: NMT seems to be a promising intervention for improving upper limb movement in patients with CP. Further investigations are certainly


Use of Neuromuscular Taping integrated to the rehabilitation protocol of post burn scars of the CTO Hospital of Turin: a case study
Authors: Danila Toscano 1, Daniela Arena 1, Maurizio Stella 2, Dario Gavetti 3, Maria Vittoria Actis 4
A.O.U. Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino
1 S.C. Medicina Fisica e Riabilitazione U. Direttore Prof. Giuseppe Massazza
2 S.C. Chirurgia Plastica Ricostruttiva Grandi Ustionati. Direttore Maurizio Stella
3 S.C. Formazione Permanente e Aggiornamento Risorse Umane
4 S.C. Unità Spinale e RRF. Direttore Maria Vittoria Actis

Congressi in cui il lavoro è stato presentato:

  • Torino 17. 20 Novembre 2014. XXI Congresso SIUST, XVIII Meeting Euro Mediterranean Council for burns and fire disaster, 9 International
  • Humanitarian Conference. Titolo della relazione: “Scar taping”
  • Roma 19 Ottobre 2013. Congresso Internazionale Taping NeuroMuscolare. Titolo della relazione: “Applicazione del TNM sulle cicatrici da ustione: integrazione con il Protocollo Riabilitativo del CTO di Torino. Caso Clinico”
Scienza riabilitativa 2016; 18(3): 26-38. Visibile sul sito del AIFI. https://aifi.net/archivio-scienza-riabilitativa/
Scienza Riabilitativa Rivista trimestrale scientifica dell’Associazione Italiana Fisioterapisti (A.I.FI.)


Conclusions, possible future developments
In the presented case, the rehabilitation of burn scars is exhibited of a caustic cause that affects anatomical areas relevant from an aesthetic / functional point of view and not easy to treat in which, at the final evaluation (18 months), both the scars of the areas study that those of the control areas report characteristics that demonstrate their stabilisation, but it should be noted that the most difficult areas, thanks to the application of TNM, presented an earlier recovery.
The results achieved encourage us to continue using the TNM by expanding the case history to be able to verify its effectiveness in more depth.



Rahul Krishnan Kutty *1, Hailay Gebremichael 2.

  1. Assistant Professor, Department of Physiotherapy, School of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia, East Africa.
  2. Lecturer, Department of Physiotherapy, School of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia, East Africa.

International Journal of Physiotherapy and Research, Int J Physiother Res 2017, Vol 5(3):2002-09. ISSN 2321-1822 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.16965/ijpr.2017.110


Background: Neuro Muscular Taping (NMT) is a biomechanical therapy method using decompressive and compressive stimuli to obtain positive effects in the musculoskeletal, vascular, lymphatic and neurological systems. Application of an elastic tape on the skin will evoke direct therapeutic effect both local and distant by reflex. The application of NMT with an eccentric and decompressive technique rises the skin and dilates the interstitial spaces and consequently improves circulation and absorption of liquids reduces subcutaneous pressure. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of Neuromuscular taping on the treatment of Phantom pain in post amputation subjects in Mekelle ortho-physiotherapy centre, Physiotherapy Department, Tigray region, Northern Ethiopia, 2015-16.
Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 32 subjects between 10 and 80 years of age. Subjects who underwent lower limb amputation and having phantom pain syndrome in Mekelle-ortho physiotherapy center, Mekelle and meeting the inclusion criteria were included in the study. The 32 subjects were allocated in to two groups of which, one is experimental group (16 subjects who were treated with neuromuscular taping treatment along with conventional physiotherapy) and second control group (16 subjects who were treated with conventional physiotherapy alone).
Results: To check the effectiveness of neuromuscular taping, the results of both groups were compared with each other i.e. between the groups it revealed a statistical association, i.e. (df =16, p=0.005 level, group A= 0.059 & group B =0.501). These finding clearly suggested that for lower limb amputation patient conventional physiotherapy is effective in reduction of pain but along with neuromuscular taping it stands to very effective in reducing phantom pain in post amputation subjects and VAS scale parameters reduction resulted in 6-7 treatment sessions that is less than in 8-10 treatment sessions when compared to control group.
Conclusion: To conclude the results using the conventional physiotherapy with neuromuscular taping in the management of phantom pain in lower limb amputation subjects were found to be very effective than conventional physiotherapy alone. Hence, it is highly recommended that neuro muscular taping can be included in the treatment protocol for lower limb amputation subjects having phantom pain syndrome along with conventional physiotherapy.
KEY WORDS: Neuromuscular Taping, Phantom Pain, Chronic Pain, Physical Therapy, Conventional Physical Therapy Management, Pain Management, Physiotherapy.

Therapeutical Interventions



M.Pilleri, C.Berlingieri, A.Turolla, S.Rossi, M.Agostini, A.Lacatena, A.Antonini

  1. Laboratorio di Robotica e Cinematica -Fondazione Ospedale San Camillo IRCCS, VE;
  2. Università degli Studi di Padova – CdL in Fisioterapia


Parkinsonism & Related Disorders


Volume 18, Supplement 2, January 2012, Pages S156-S157

The effects of neuromuscular taping on gait walking strategy in a patient with joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome hypermobility type.

Camerota F1, Galli M2, Cimolin V3, Celletti C1, Ancillao A4, Blow D5, Albertini G4.

Author information

  1. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Division, Orthopaedic Department, Umberto I Hospital, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy.
  2. Department of Electronics, Information and Bioengineering Department, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy and Gait Analysis Lab IRCCS ‘San Raffaele Pisana’, Tosinvest Sanità, Roma, Italy.
  3. Department of Electronics, Information and Bioengineering Department, Politecnico di Milano, piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano, Italy.
  4. IRCCS ‘San Raffaele Pisana’, Tosinvest Sanità, Roma, Italy.
  5. NeuroMuscular Taping Institute, Roma, Italy.

Ther Adv Musculoskelet Dis. 2015 Feb;7(1):3-10. doi: 10.1177/1759720X14564561.




OBJECTIVE: In this case study, biomechanical alterations induced by neuromuscular taping (NMT) were quantified, during walking, in a patient with joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome hypermobility type (JHS/EDS-HT).

METHODS: A female JHS/EDS-HT patient underwent NMT applications over the low back spine and bilaterally to the knee. Quantitative gait analyses were collected before the NMT application and at the end of the treatment (2 weeks after the first application of NMT).

RESULTS: At the end of treatment following the NMT application, left step length showed improvements in cadence and velocity, the left knee showed a reduction in its flexed position at initial contact, and the right ankle joint improved its position at initial contact and in the swing phase. Improvements were also found in kinetics, in terms of the ankle moment and power.

CONCLUSIONS: Results show that NMT seems to be a promising low-cost intervention for improving gait strategy in patients with JHS/EDS-HT. Further investigations are needed to assess the effects of this treatment intervention on pathological symptoms.

KEYWORDS: Ehlers–Danlos syndrome; gait analysis; neuromuscular taping; rehabilitation

Neuromuscular taping application in counter movement jump: biomechanical insight in a group of healthy basketball players 

Authors: Giuseppe Marcolin (1,2), Alessandro Buriani (1), Andrea Giacomelli (1), David Blow (3), Davide Grigoletto (2), Marco Gesi (4) 
(1) Motion capture laboratory, Maria Paola Belloni Center for Personalized Medicine, Gruppo Data Medica Padova spa, Padova, Italy; (2) Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, Italy; (3) Neuro Muscular Taping Institute, Rome, Italy; (4) Department of translational research and new technologies in medicine and surgery, University of Pisa, Italy.
European Journal of Translational Myology 27 (2): 130-135 . PMID: Eur J Transl Myol. 2017 Jun 24; 27(2): 6665. Published online 2017 Jun 27. doi: 10.4081/ejtm.2017.6665
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License (CC BY-NC 4.0) which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.
PAROLE CHIAVE: neuro muscular taping, vertical jump, biomechanics, performance.
READ MORE: PMCID: PMC5505103 PMID: 28713536 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
Abstract: Kinesiologic elastic tape is widely used for both clinical and sport applications although its efficacy in enhancing agonistic performance is still controversial. Aim of the study was to verify in a group of healthy basketball players whether a neuromuscular taping application (NMT) on ankle and knee joints could affect the kinematic and the kinetic parameters of the jump, either by enhancing or inhibiting the functional performance. Fourteen healthy male basketball players without any ongoing pathologies at upper limbs, lower limbs and trunk volunteered in the study. They randomly performed 2 sets of 5 counter movement jumps (CMJ) with and without application of Kinesiologic tape. The best 3 jumps of each set were considered for the analysis. The Kinematics parameters analyzed were: knees maximal flexion and ankles maximal dorsiflexion during the push off phase, jump height and take off velocity. Vertical ground reaction force and maximal power expressed in the push off phase of the jump were also investigated. The NMT application in both knees and ankles showed no statistically significant differences in the kinematic and kinetic parameters and did not interfere with the CMJ performance. Bilateral NMT application in the group of healthy male basketball players did not change kinematics and kinetics jump parameters, thus suggesting that its routine use should have no negative effect on functional performance. Similarly, the combined application of the tape on both knees and ankles did not affect in either way jump performance.


Il NeuroMuscular Taping migliora la funzionalità della mano nei pazienti con sclerosi sistemica: uno studio pilota

Authors: S. Parisi 1, C. Celletti 2, M. Scarati 1, M. Priora 1, A. Laganà 1, C. L. Peroni 1, F. Camerota 2, G. La Torre 3, D. Blow 4, E. Fusaro 1
1Rheumatology Unit, Azienda Ospedaliera Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, Turin; 2 Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Division, Umberto I Hospital, Rome; 3 Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Rome; 4 NeuroMuscular Taping Institute, Rome, Italy
Clin Ter 2017; 168(6):e371-375. doi: 10.7417/CT.2017.2036
Key Words: Hand function, Neuromuscular Taping, Rehabilitation, Systemic sclerosis
Abstract: Hand functioning is often impaired in patients with Systemic sclerosis. Neuromuscular Taping is a novel application of tape able to improve functioning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible role of this application in the hand functionality of patients with Systemic sclerosis. Women with a diagnosis of SSc has been recruited and evaluated using different scales before and immediately after NMT application and after one, three and six months. Fifty-three women has been evaluated and Cochin Hand Functional Disability scale, Hand Mobility in Sclerodermia, Modified Modified Rodnan Skin Score and Dreiser Algo – Functional Index scores showed statistical significant differences during all the period; moreover a reduction of pain and Raynaud Phenomenon’s and an improvement of finger flexion has been observed. Application of NMT in patients with Systemic sclerosis have showed beneficial effect and future studies are needed to confirm these results.
Results: Fifty-three women has been recruited in the study; the baseline characteristics are described in table 1. The functional score used to assess the hand mobility and functionality showed statistical significant differences comparing the baseline and the follow up evaluation during all the period. Except for the CHFDS the other scale showed a non-statistically difference between the pretreatment evaluation and the score after six months; clinical evaluation score (Vas score, flexion and number of Raynaud phenomena) showed statistically significant differences among all the period; a non-significant difference occurred only between number of Raynaud phenomena pretreatment and at six months after evaluation. All the results are in Table 2. Box plot diagram of the all scale are illustrated in Figure 1. No adverse phenomena has been described from participants.


Rahul Krishnan Kutty. 1, Hailay Gerbemichael. 2, Kumaresan Ramanathan 3 and David Blow 4
  1. Department of Physiotherapy, CHS MU
  2. College of Health Sciences, Mekelle University, Department of Physiotherapy
  3. Institute of Bio Medical Sciences College of Health Sciences (CHS) Mekelle University
  4. NeuroMuscular Taping Institute, Rome, Italy

International Journal of Recent Scientific Research Vol. 8, Issue, 10, pp. 20716-20721, October, 2017


Neuro Muscular Taping (NMT) is a biomechanical therapy method using decompressive stimuli to obtain positive effects in the musculoskeletal, vascular, lymphatic and neurological systems. As the tapes form wrinkles, lifting the skin, they facilitate venous and lymphatic drainage, improve blood circulation, and relieve pain. Correct application may also assist to correct the alignment of joints, support muscles during movement, and improve stability and posture. In this study we evaluated the effectiveness of a low cost and relatively easy to learn taping technique for the treatment of low back pain which is the most prevalent musculoskeletal condition and the most common cause of disability in developed nations. The lifetime prevalence of LBP (at least one episode of LBP in a lifetime) in developed countries is reported to be up to 85%. LBP results in significant levels of disability, producing significant restrictions on usual activity and participation, such as an inability to work. Furthermore, the economic, societal and public health effects of LBP appear to be increasing. 40 subjects with low back pain were included in this study at the Mekelle University, Ethiopia, Ayder Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Physiotherapy Department as a part of rehabilitation project to evaluate economic and practical solutions for non specific low back pain in developing countries. Standardized NMT application for lumbar pain was used in one group while the other group received standard physical therapy over a 4 to 6 week treatment period. According to Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability index there was a significant reduction in pain with the NMT lumbar application in comparison to the physical therapy only treatment group.
While the Visual Analogue scale showed significant reduction in pain from 8.2±1.54 pretest to 1.4±1.09 post test. The results show that NeuroMuscular taping has an important role in the treatment of non specific low back pain in developing countries due to its low economic cost and the easiness of specific training required to apply correctly the methodology outlined in this article.
Key Words: Neuromuscular Taping, Physical Therapy, Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Index, Taping, Volunteer Project, Disability

Effectiveness of NeuroMuscular Taping on painful hemiplegic shoulder: a randomised clinical trial.

Disabil Rehabil. 2016 Aug;38(16):1603-9. doi: 10.3109/09638288. 2015.1107631. Epub 2015 Dec 18.
Pillastrini P , Rocchi G , Deserri D , Foschi P , Mardegan M , Naldi MT , Villafañe JH , Bertozzi L . 
Department of Biological and Neuromotor Sciences , University of Bologna , Italy. Department of Physiotherapy , University of Bologna , Italy. Department of Rehabilitative Medicine , AUSL Imola , Italy. Department of Rehabilitative Medicine , AUSL Romagna , Italy. Department of Sports Medicine , AUSL Ferrara , Italy. Department of Research , IRCCS Don Gnocchi Foundation , Milan , Italy.
PubMed – NCBI 20/01/17 20:15. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26678717 Pagina 2 di 2
KEYWORDS: Pain; shoulder; stroke
Abstract: The purpose of this trial was to investigate changes in pain, the range of motion (ROM) and spasticity in people with painful hemiplegic shoulder (PHS) after the application of an upper limb neuromuscular taping (NMT). We conducted a randomised clinical trial. The study included 32 people, 31% female (mean±SD age: 66±9 years), with PHS after stroke with pain at rest and during functional movements. The experimental group received the application of NMT and a standard physical therapy programme (SPTP), whereas the control group received SPTP. The groups received four 45-minute long sessions over four weeks. The VAS, ROM and spasticity were assessed before and after the intervention with follow-up at four weeks. The experimental group had a greater reduction in pain compared to the control group at the end of the intervention, as well as at one month after the intervention (p<0.001; all the group differences were greater than 4.5!cm, which is greater than the minimal clinically important difference of 2.0!cm). The experimental group had a significantly higher (i.e. better) ROM, by 30.0°, than the control group in shoulder flexion (95% CI: 37.3-22.7) at 4 weeks and by 24.8° (95% CI: 32.1-17.6) at 8 weeks as well as in abduction by 30.6° (95% CI: 37.5-23.7) at 4 weeks and 25.1° (95% CI: 33.8-16.3) at 8 weeks.
Our study demonstrates that NMT decreases pain and increases the ROM in subjects with shoulder pain after a stroke. Implications for Rehabilitation Painful hemiplegic shoulder is a frequent complication after stroke with negative impacts on functional activities and on quality of life of people, moreover restricts rehabilitation intervention. Neuromuscular taping is a technique introduced by David Blow for the treatment of neuromuscoloskeletal problems. This study shows the reduction of pain and the improvement of range of motion after the application of an upper limb neuromuscular taping. Rehabilitation professionals who are involved in the management of painful hemiplegic shoulder may like to consider the benefits that neuromuscular taping can produce on upper limb.

Possible applications of Neuromuscular Taping in pain reduction in Multiple Sclerosis subject: a preliminary report

Carmine Berlingieri(1), Filippo Camerota(2), Claudia Celletti(2), Andrea Turolla (1), Alberto Peraro(3), David Blow (4), Patrizio Sale(1)
(1)Neurorehabilitation Department, Foundation IRCCS San Camillo Hospital, Venezia, Italy. (2)Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Division, Umberto I Hospitale, Rome Italy. (3)M.A.D. Medicine, Adria, Rovigo, Italy. (5)NeuroMuscular Taping Institute, Roma, Italy
*Corresponding author:  Filippo Camerota, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Division Umberto I Hospital, Rome ,Italy. Email: f.camerota@libero.it
Senses Sciences. 2016; 3 (4):303-307. doi: 10.14616/sands-2016 – 4-303307
KEYWORDS: multiple sclerosis, neuropathic pain, rehabilitation, taping, NMT pain treatment strategy, neuromuscular taping, quality of life.
Pain is a common disabling symptom in patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). It has been indicated that pain prevalence in MS patients is between 29–86 %. It is evident that most MS patients requiring treatment will be also searching pain related treatments to assist in day to day activities. Neuropathic pain is a difficult symptom and is generally inadequately relieved even though different rehabilitative approaches may be used. Neuromuscular Taping inducing micro-movements by stimulating receptors in the skin has been described in literature as a possible intervention in neurological and orthopedic rehabilitation improving mobility and in pain reduction. The aim of this preliminary report was to analyze the effect and to evaluate the possible applications of Neuromuscular Taping (NMT) in patients with MS in order to reduce pain in comparison to the Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) and to physical rehabilitation treatment alone. We observed that NMT together with standard physical rehabilitation was able to reduce neuropathic pain to greater lengths, with statistically significant differences between pre and post treatment, compared to the other treatments evaluated. This study showed increased efficacy in pain reduction when NMT was applied to standard physical treatment in long standing pain conditions. Neuromuscular Taping may constitute a low cost treatment strategy for neuropathic pain conditions in MS.

Neuromuscular Taping in multiple sclerosis. A pilot study.

Acta Biomed. 2012 Aug;83(2):103-7.
Authors: Costantino C , Licari O, Granella F, Sghedoni S.
(www.actabiomedica.it). PMID: 23393917 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
READ MORE: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23393917#
Abstract: Neuromuscular Taping (NT) is a relatively new device that induces micro-movements by stimulating receptors in the skin. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of the application of Neuromuscular Taping (NT) on motor performance and quality of life in a cohort of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients.
Twenty MS patients with Expanded Disability Status Scale < or = 4 (EDSS); clinically stable disease; absence of relapses during the last 3 months; absence of rehabilitation treatment or symptomatic drugs acting on muscular tone or fatigue for at least 2 months; a stable disease modifying treatment for at least 3 months; were treated with the application of NT. It was applied four times at 4-day intervals on the weakest side of the hamstrings muscles. The treatment efficacy on motor performance was evaluated by the six minute walking test (6MWT), measured at the beginning of treatment (TO), at the end of NT application (T1), and three weeks after the last treatment application (T2). Moreover, Short Form 36 health survey (SF-36) was administered to evaluate the quality of life. The mean distance covered during the 6MWT improved significantly between TO and the successive T1 and T2 measurements, passing from 342.6 +/- 148.9 mt at TO to 395.8 +/- 146.0 mt at T2 (p=0.03). The SF-36 showed a statistically significant improvement in most items. The application of NT was able to improve significantly the motor performance and the quality of life in our small case series of MS patients.

The Effects Of NeuroMuscular Taping Compare To Physical Therapies Modalities In Patients With Adhesive Capsulitis Of The Shoulder

European Scientific Journal February 2015 /SPECIAL/ edition vol.2 ISSN: 1857 – 7881 (Print) e – ISSN 1857- 7431
Authors: Enkeleda Sinaj, PhD, Fatjona Kamberi, PhD, Vjollca Ndreu, PhD, Ermir Sinaj, MsC, Tatjana Nurka(Cina), Ass/Prof
Faculty of Technical Medical Sciences ,University of Medicine, Tirana Albania
Keywords: Adhesive exercises, taping neuromuscular, ultrasound, laser, stretching exercises.
Abstract: Adhesive capsulitis is a common painful condition characterized by severe loss of mobility and shoulder pain. Patients with this disease have a painful restriction of both active and passive mobility and an overall loss of shoulder movement in all planes. This experimental design study investigated the effect of combination of taping neuromuscular and stretching exercises program compared to ultrasounds and stretching exercises program. A total of 40 patients aged between 40 and 60 years were involved in the study. Patients were divided in two groups: first group subjected of neuromuscular taping +stretching exercises program for 4 weeks (experimental group 20 patients) and a second group subjected of a daily program of physical therapy + stretching exercises (control group 20 patients). They were evaluated using visual analogue scales for pain, goniometric measure for passive and active range of motion, SPADI index for shoulder function and patient satisfaction. Analysis showed statistically significant improvement in both the experimental and control groups. In addition, the mean improvement in VAS was significantly greater after first week in the experimental group than in the control group. The study showed that the combination of taping with stretching exercises program leads to better outcomes in rehabilitation of patients with frozen shoulder especially when an immediate effect is needed.

The hand as an instrument of cerebral plasticity


Celletti Claudia (a), Blow David (b), Masala Daniele(c), Camerota Filippo (a)

(a) Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Division, Sapienza University, Umberto I Hospital, Rome

(b) NeuroMuscolar Taping Institute, Rome, Italy

(c) University of Cassino and Southern Lazio

Corresponding author: Dr. Claudia Celletti, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Division, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le A. Moro, 5 – 00185 Rome, Italy, Tel: +39-3286269632; e-mail: clacelletti@gmail.com

Keywords: Hand, Muscle Vibration, Neuromuscular Taping, Plasticity, Proprioception.

Abstract. Why only the human hand is able to write, to draw and to play an instrument despite being anatomically equal to a monkey’s hand? Why is so difficult, but also a real challenge for the rehabilitator, improve hand functioning after a lesion? In this paper we aim to describe proprioceptive and tactile upper limb information strategies given to patients in different conditions in order to improve upper limber function.
Why the human hand? And why only the human hand is able to write, to draw and to play an instrument despite being anatomically equal to a monkey’s hand? And why the hands’ function is characterized by tactile perception? And why not only motor movement? And finally why is touch so important?
The hand represents an excellent model in which to study one of the most intriguing issues in motor control: simultaneous control of a large number of mechanical degrees of free range of movement. Human hand is able to grasp objects of all shapes and sizes, to write, to paint, to sculpture and to play musical instruments [1]. But these motor skills are also associated with high tactile discrimination, which is possible thanks to skin receptors. These receptors play an indispensable role in kinesthesia [2]. It’s enough to think that finger movement is possible through the contraction of forearm muscles whose tendons cross more than one joint; in this situation the muscle afferent information is potentially ambiguous but the proximity of skin receptors adjacent to each joint allow them to provide joint specific information [3].
Beyond this we have prehension, that is the act of reaching to grasp an object, which is performed with little conscious effort and appears as a seamless act. Prehension actually consists of two distinct but temporally integrated movements, a Reach and a Grasp, each mediated by different neural pathways which project from visual to motor cortex via the parietal lobe [4]. The Reach serves to bring the hand into contact with the target by transporting it to the appropriate location, whereas the Grasp serves to shape the hand for target purchase. As two distinct behaviors, the Reach and the Grasp may be subject to different evolutionary developments and adaptive specializations. The Reach is produced largely by proximal musculature of the upper arm and is guided by the extrinsic properties of the target (location and orientation), and is coded in egocentric coordinates relative to the reacher.
 The Grasp is produced mainly by distal musculature of the hand and digits, while guided by the intrinsic properties of the target (i.e. size and shape), and can be coded in spatial coordinates intrinsic to the hand irrespective of the hand’s location relative to the body.
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Does NeuroMuscular Taping influence hand kinesiology? A pilot study on Down’s Syndrome.

Clin Ter. 2015;166(4):e257-63. doi: 10.7417/T.2015.1870.
Rigoldi C , Galli M , Celletti C , Blow D , Camerota F , Albertini G .
Key words: Down syndrome; Dysgraphia; Neuromuscolar taping; Proprioception; Writing skills
PMID: 26378759 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26378759#
Abstract: This paper is a first attempt analysis of hand and upper limb proprioception coordination induced by NeuroMuscular Taping (NMT): application in a group of 5 participants with Down syndrome. The participants underwent a drawing test with motion capture system acquisition before and after NMT application. Specific and descriptive parameters were computed and analysed in order to quantify the differences.
Results showed statistical differences between pre and post treatment sessions: the 5 participants with Down syndrome evidenced more reliance on proprioceptive signals in the post treatment session during the execution of the specific writing tasks. Based on the hypothesis that modifications in proprioception should alter motor pathway mapping of the motor cortex, Neuromuscular taping may play a role in the treatment of dysgraphia and improving hand coordination following CNS impairment, even though a small treatment group was chosen for this pilot study the results lead to further discussions concerning the role of different afferent signals in a pathological context.